Written by Angelo

Categories: Healthcare | Sport

May 23, 2024


Guys, here the history of biochemistry is changing and on TV they still talk about carbohydrates, proteins and fats...

Science has documented the benefits of consuming lactate during exercise in humans, but few studies have examined the role of lactate during rest or after a meal. Exercise physiologists tested men and women fasted with a carbohydrate meal and then monitored blood lactate and fat versus carbohydrate metabolism. They found that lactate buffers the glucose in a meal and that lactate is used for energy almost as much as glucose.

Obviously, all this happens when you are "healthy" like the subjects of this study published in February 2024 in NATURE.

Lactate is therefore shown not to be a sign of fatigue that the athletes had exhausted their body's oxygen supply, but likely a NORMAL product of the metabolic activity required to fuel the muscles during prolonged exercise.

Today, research is providing a much clearer picture of lactate's role in the body, further disproving the idea that lactate is a sign of oxygen deprivation in muscles.

This article demonstrates conclusively that lactate is produced normally in humans after ingestion of carbohydrates. Lactate enters the bloodstream quickly, even before glucose appears. Far from being a toxic byproduct to be eliminated during strenuous exercise, dietary glucose is so rapidly converted to lactate that it pre-dates or endorses the concept that glucose is the superior energy substrate of the two major carbon-energy transporters in the body.

The findings show that the rapid conversion of glucose to lactate, which initially begins in the gut, is one way the body deals with a sudden dose of (toxic, if in excess) carbohydrates.

Lactate, working with insulin, buffers the appearance of dietary glucose in the blood and therefore possible damage to cells.

“Instead of a large increase in glucose, we have an increase in lactate and glucose after eating”, said Brooks, a professor of integrative biology at UC Berkeley. “And the more that is converted into lactate from glucose, the better you can handle glucose. Lactate is a carbohydrate buffer.”

Brooks and his colleagues had previously shown this to be true during intense exercise. The new study confirms that lactate plays the same role during normal everyday activity and during rest.

“It is evidence that shows that lactate should not be associated (ed. only) with anaerobic metabolism, i.e. oxygen-limited metabolism. It's just a normal response to carbohydrate consumption or exercise.", Leija said. “During exercise, lactate is used as the dominant fuel source. That's why blood lactate increases when you train a little harder. It's not like you're turning it into a waste product. It enters the blood because it must be disposed of. tissues that need it to continue their physiological performance.”

Glucose tolerance

The study was conducted on 15 healthy, physically active young adults — eight women and seven men — as part of a larger NIH-funded study to determine how well people transition from fat to carbohydrate metabolism as they age.

Volunteers were asked to fast overnight (12 hours) to deplete carbohydrate and glycogen stores so they could obtain energy primarily by breaking down fats into fatty acids and using them to fuel basic bodily functions.

They then drank 75 grams of glucose, a rapidly absorbed sugar, to stimulate the switch from fatty acid metabolism to carbohydrate metabolism. This procedure is similar to the glucose tolerance test used to diagnose diabetes and is commonly given to pregnant women to screen for gestational diabetes.

Brooks' study differed from previous similar studies in that he and his colleagues, including Leija, closely monitored volunteers' blood lactate levels for a two-hour period after ingesting glucose and periodically measured the ratio of oxygen and carbon dioxide in their body via breath, which indicates the proportion of fatty acids to carbohydrates burned.
Which is the same principle used in modern metabolometers to establish the FATmax parameter, which is fundamental for calibrating workouts in the best possible way MITOCHONDRIAL TRAINING.

To calculate the amount of lactate entering the blood relative to glucose, they infused lactate and glucose tracers (lactate labeled with a nonradioactive stable isotope, carbon-13, and glucose labeled with deuterium) in advance for 90 minutes. To bring marked blood lactate and glucose levels between 1% and 2%. Dilution of the labeled lactate and glucose with the incoming unlabeled dietary glucose allowed them to establish the kinetics, i.e. the appearance, disappearance and elimination of lactate and glucose in the blood. Most of these experiments measure the static concentration of venous blood, which provides little information on the kinetics of glucose and lactate.

Arterialized blood sampling was also critical to the success of the study. This allowed the researchers to see what happened in the gut. Typically, a forearm vein is used to sample blood 30 minutes after a glucose test, but the sampling produces confusing results.

The researchers found that the volunteers began converting dietary glucose into lactate before it even left the intestine. Lactate levels began to increase in arterial blood just five minutes after the meal, while glucose, often touted as the body's energy currency, appeared in the bloodstream only 15 to 30 minutes after glucose ingestion.

“The first carbohydrate after a glucose meal enters the blood as lactate because that's what intestinal cells do and because most of the glucose is captured by the liver before being released into the blood for the muscles, where the glucose will be converted into lactate”, Brooks said. “We could see this because of the removal and oxidation of lactate and because carbon-13 from the lactate tracer appeared in blood glucose. This shows that lactate is just one important energy highway for carbohydrate distribution – the carbon energy flow.”

The lactate shuttle

Brooks has conducted human and animal studies for more than 50 years to study the role of lactate in the body, each study providing further evidence that it is not a toxic byproduct of oxygen-limited anaerobic metabolism, which does not occur in the human body, and by now it should be peaceful and established. This hypothesis, however, influenced how athletes and doctors viewed lactate. Many doctors still perceive high levels of lactate – often mistakenly called lactic acid – in the blood as a symptom of an illness that needs to be resolved with supplemental medications or oxygen.

“Measuring lactate is one of the most important things sports medicine professionals do. And now we understand what's happening.", Brooks said. “Athletes continually produce lactate and continually eliminate it. And when they get to the point where they can't get rid of it, mostly through oxidation and turning it into glucose, we know that the person can't persist very long. I think this is really revolutionary. But it's really confusing for people. What was bad is now good. All the books are wrong.”

With the exception of Brooks' textbook, “Exercise Physiology: Human Bioenergetics and Its Applications.” Originally written in 1984 with Thomas Fahey, it is now in its fifth edition. The text for the sixth edition is already being uploaded to the publisher.

“When I read Dr. Brooks' 1984 book it was a real eye-opener for me, to be honest,” Leija said. “I always associated lactic acid with exercising so intensely that I was running out of oxygen and couldn't get anything together in terms of physiology. Then it started to make a lot more sense.”

In his book, Brooks coined the term “lactate shuttle” to describe the body's metabolic feedback loop in which lactate is the intermediary that supports most if not all tissues and organs.
My book: MITOCHONDRIAL TRAINING explains these matters well in advance but also the underlying health implications.

He showed, for example, that in many tissues lactate is preferred as a fuel over glucose. During intense activity, muscle mitochondria burn it preferentially and even stop using glucose and fatty acids as fuel. Brooks used tracers to demonstrate that human skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and brain prefer lactate to glucose as fuel and function BETTER with lactate. Lactate also signals adipose tissue to stop breaking down fat for fuel.

One gap in these studies was what happens during normal non-physical activity and rest. The current study fills this gap and supports the idea that when blood lactate levels remain high, it's a sign that something is disrupting the lactate shuttle cycle, not that the lactate itself is harming the body.

“It's really informative about various medical conditions”, Brooks said. “I think what is significant in the current result is that it is not just a question of muscle. Start with dietary carbohydrates. This was a missing piece in the puzzle.”

“Ever since before college I was reading physiology books trying to improve my training and seeing all these scientific terms that I ignored then because I was just looking for, how can I get faster? How can I run longer?” Leija said. “But now, wow, he ended up helping me indirectly. Even today, there is so much that I think is left to discover about it.”



This study is incredible and completely confirms the insights I had in my last book: MITOCHONDRIAL TRAINING.

My training method makes the most of these principles and, with simple tests and a lot of concentration, TRAINS our muscles to produce and, above all, MANAGE increasingly large quantities of LACTATE. This training system, strictly AEROBIC at high volume and low intensity, improves mitochondrial function and reverses the hands of our biological clock, preventing practically all modern chronic-degenerative diseases which are triggered above all by a sedentary lifestyle and technology.

As we age, we are able to tolerate food sugars less and less, which have never been present in our evolutionary trajectory in these large quantities and above all "recommended" by TV shows. This happens exactly because mitochondrial function decays.

Sports training calibrated in style MITOCHONDRIAL TRAINING reverses (or stops) this degeneration. It is a training that reactivates all mitochondrial biochemical processes, consistently supporting all the principles of our evolution (nomadism and persistence hunting, as well as constant movement).

One final note on diet. From the study just commented, it strongly emerges that if you are young and healthy and therefore with a healthy mitochondrial pool, you can manage abnormal quantities of dietary carbohydrates (75 grams of glucose is an abnormal quantity).

If, in addition to being young and healthy, you train 20-25 and up to 30 hours a week especially in style MITOCHONDRIAL TRAINING, then you will exponentially increase this carbohydrate tolerance. If you are a phenomenon with a genetic pool starting from 6 to the super-enalotto... Then you become new  TADEJ POGACER. But all this will not mean, as many people tell me, that carbohydrates are the preferred food substrate... Unless you are avid agonists.




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