Deuterium, REDOX & 5G – The Vitamin C Connection

Most of the deuterium in the universe could have been created during the first three minutes after the Big Bang, together with  hydrogen, helium and lithium. The deuterium/hydrogen ratio on earth is considered to be higher than that of the general cosmic environment [1]  Many scientists believe that deuterium played a critical role in the origin of life [2, 3], as the inclusion of deuterium in critical biomolecules conferred resistance and survival adaptability to early lifeforms challenged by extremely harsh environments [4].  

An easy way to gain insight into the importance of deuterium for all lifeforms on earth is to examine the quintessential Inuit Paradox involving Vitamin C [5]. 

Inuit Paradox

Traditional Inuit diets are low in carbohydrates, fruits and vegetables, but high in animal fats and proteins. In fact, Nunavik Inuit from Quebec, Canada derived approximately 75% of their daily energy intake from animal fats [6, 7]. Vitamin C obtained from traditional diets during the summer months ranged from 11 mg to 118 mg, with an average of about 30 mg year round [8].  How did Inuit maintain adequate antioxidant and REDOX balance with such low levels of vitamin C?  

The answer, surprisingly, comes from yet another Inuit Paradox involving deuterium.  Inuits live throughout northern Canada where environmental waters typically have lower concentration of deuterium [9].  Yet their deuterium levels were found to be the highest when compared to various other indigenous ethnic groups located around the world.  

In 2009, Brown et al. published the results of their detailed analysis on 123 hair samples from the Mildred Trotter Collection of the Smithsonian Institution.  These samples were collected from various indigenous ethnic groups around the world between 1935 to 1966 [10]. Take a look at their findings:  

[Source: Bowen GJ, Ehleringer JR, Chesson LA, Thompson AH, Podlesak DW, Cerling TE. Dietary and physiological controls on the hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of hair from mid-20th century indigenous populations. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009 Aug;139(4):494-504. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21008.]


The measured hydrogen isotope ratios (𝛅D) in the table above were obtained by comparison to VSMOW, the accepted water hydrogen isotope standard.  The VSMOW of deuterium and hydrogen is defined as 2H/1H = 155.76 ±0.1 ppm (a ratio of 1 part per approximately 6420 parts). Any variance to this ratio is shown as a delta value (δ), expressed in units of permil (‰).  

If you compare the δD values of the hair samples from the various sites to the δD of their respective environmental waters, you will see that there is a general preference for deuterium depletion, where the level of deuterium is lower than that of the environmental water. This is true for all the sampled indigenous groups except for the two Inuit sites in Canada, where the deuterium levels were enriched to levels that EXCEEDED that of the environmental water. 

The following chart shows the levels of deuterium as ppm found in the various hair samples, in order of increasing deuterium concentration in environmental waters, starting from the most depleted water at 133 ppm to the highest, at 153.55 ppm.

[Source: Bowen GJ, Ehleringer JR, Chesson LA, Thompson AH, Podlesak DW, Cerling TE. Dietary and physiological controls on the hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of hair from mid-20th century indigenous populations. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009 Aug;139(4):494-504. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21008.]


Inuit exposed to environmental waters with deuterium levels at 133 ppm showed the same level of deuterium as Thai exposed to water at much higher deuterium levels of 149 ppm.  Inuit with the highest levels of deuterium (147.3 ppm) of all samples collected lived in an environment where the water contained only 139.2 ppm deuterium. However, these Inuit have a similar level of deuterium as Keimoes Bushmen exposed to 153.2 ppm environmental waters [10].

What is even more fascinating, is that at the same level of δD environmental waters, there is a dramatic difference in deuterium concentration of up to 12.12 ppm between Inuit in Canada and Blackfeet in Montana USA [10].  What is the difference between these two indigenous populations that could contribute to such a great disparity in deuterium levels in their hair samples?

Montana is located at latitude 46.8797° N.  As a result, the average annual temperature is 11.6 °C in Montana [11].  Nunavik is located at approximately 60° N [12]. The average annual temperature is −10 °C (14 °F) with an average ambient temperature underground of −15 °C (5 °F).  This huge difference in temperature reflects the ability of vegetation that can be found in the respective locations. Extreme temperatures and soil conditions greatly impacts plant survival, thus limiting the variety and quantity of plants that can be grown, collected, dried and consumed by Inuit. 

Similarly, Keimoes Bushmen showed a higher deuterium level of 1.38 ppm compared to Zulu, even though their environmental water contained 0.35 ppm less deuterium when compared to Zulu.  Interestingly, Keimoes and KwaZulu-Natal occupy almost the same latitude at 28.5° S. The only difference is Keimoes is located 1125 km INLAND, west of KwaZulu-Natal, where the average annual rainfall is 84 mm.  The average rainfall in KwaZulu-Natal is 894 mm. The huge difference in the amount of rainfall greatly affects the amount of vegetation available to Keimoes Bushmen [13, 14]. Why is the presence of vegetation important? 

Deuterium & Antioxidants – The Vitamin C Connection

Blackfeet are known for their expert use of a wide array of plants with high antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties in traditional tribal medicine practises common to most Native American tribes. In one study, researchers were able to identify at least 18 medicinal plants that were used to treat various ailments and diseases. Leaves, fruits/berries, roots, flowers and barks of plants were all utilized in varying proportions [15]. 

Most of the identified plants were rich in antioxidants such as anthocyanins and polyphenols that showed high levels of free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities [15].  Why would a high level of antioxidants possibly lower deuterium levels in the body? The answer is really quite simple. Deuterium enhances antioxidant activities. 

Deuterium Oxide (D2O) Extends the Life & Efficiency of Ascorbic Acid

When molecular oxygen is excited electronically, singlet oxygen, a form that can be highly toxic to cells is created. In the body, singlet oxygen can be generated from photochemical reactions in the presence of light, or in dark reactions during inflammatory responses.  Singlet oxygen has been shown to be the cause for age-related mtDNA lesions in human cells through the generation of common deletion, the 4,977 base pair deletion [16]. 

In 1979, Bodannes and Chan in a study on Vitamin C, ascorbic acid as a scavenger of singlet oxygen, observed a 4.7-FOLD INCREASE in the effective reduction of singlet oxygen by ascorbic acid in deuterium oxide (99.8%), compared to regular water (H2O) [17].  

The results of this 1979 study was confirmed by Chou and Khan in 1983 when they observed a 4.33 slope ratio during the complete quenching of singlet oxygen by ascorbic acid [18].  The results of their experiment was remarkably similar to those obtained by Bodannes and Chan in 1979 [17]. 

This effect of deuterium oxide on antioxidants is not limited to ascorbic acid and singlet oxygen.  Antioxidants are able to scavenge free radicals by reducing these reactive compounds back to their original state through electron transfer or a proton-coupled electron transfer.  In 2018, scientists showed that by slowing down the rate of exchange in these proton-coupled electron transfers between free radicals and antioxidants with the use of deuterium oxide, the effects of the antioxidants would be enhanced [19]. 

The fact that deuterium can enhance antioxidant effects has deep implications in REDOX balance.

Deuterium, REDOX & DNA – The Amino Acid Connection

An imbalance between free radical generation and sequestration leads to oxidative stress. Excess free radicals must be effectively quenched or the ensuing chain of reactions can cause mitochondrial dysfunction, cytotoxicity, DNA and mtDNA damage [20].  Uncontrolled oxidative stress can produce DNA lesions that lead to genomic instability [21]. 

The human DNA genetic code consists of 64 unique codons that are responsible for the translation of the four-letter code of DNA into the 20-letter code of amino acids, which are building blocks of proteins [22]. Proline is a non-essential amino acid represented by four different codons.  Proline is found in human hair [27], and constitutes about 17% of collagen fibers [23]. Proline is also found to incorporate deuterium at a level higher than all other amino acids. 

Proline Loves Deuterium

A remarkable study on the stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δD) found in bone collagen from archaeological human remains at various ancient sites in the United Kingdom revealed a striking resemblance in the way deuterium was enriched in samples found at geographical locations similar to Nunavik [24]. 

Bone collagen from medieval human remains found at the site of Quoygrew showed deuterium enrichment of +299.3‰ (permil), or 202.3 ppm.  Quoygrew is an ancient Viking settlement on the island of Westray in Orkney, Scotland.  Westray is located at 59.2942° N latitude [24], exceedingly close to the latitude of Nunavik, at 60° N.  Other collagen samples from locations further south (51° N) showed much subdued deuterium enrichment levels between 155.57 ppm to 160.54 ppm, with environmental precipitation recorded at 148.63 ppm [25].  

It is possible that similar harsh environmental conditions faced by ancient Viking settlers and Inuit induced adaptive responses in the body that increased deuterium content.  It is also possible that the higher proline content found in collagen than hair contributed to the higher hydrogen isotope ratios found in the remains at those archaeological sites in the United Kingdom. 

A study conducted in 2016 using Escherichia coli and different food substrates like glucose and tryptone (peptides), revealed that the 𝝳D of individual amino acids can vary from −55‰ to +1,070‰ depending on the culture mediums [26].  Of all the amino acids cultured, proline was found to be the most enriched in deuterium. The most depleted amino acids were glycine and isoleucine.  

The following charts show the results of deuterium levels incorporated by non-essential amino acids including proline (Pro) on the left, and essential amino acids on the right, in glucose and tryptone cultures.

Non-essential & Essential Amino Acids Deuterium Incorporation in Various D2O Concentrations (Tryptone Culture)

[Source: Marilyn L. Fogela, Patrick L. Griffina, and Seth D. Newsomea  Hydrogen isotopes in individual amino acids reflect differentiated pools of hydrogen from food and water in Escherichia coli PNAS August 9, 2016 113 (32) E4648-E4653]

Non-essential & Essential Amino Acids Deuterium Incorporation in Various D2O Concentrations (Glucose Culture)

[Source: Marilyn L. Fogela, Patrick L. Griffina, and Seth D. Newsomea  Hydrogen isotopes in individual amino acids reflect differentiated pools of hydrogen from food and water in Escherichia coli PNAS August 9, 2016 113 (32) E4648-E4653]


In all of the experiments using various culture mediums, the intrinsic hydrogen 𝝳D values were always depleted relative to the  𝝳D value of the water in the culture medium. Proline always had the most positive 𝝳D values. Why does proline accumulate deuterium?

Deuterium Protects Cells from Oxidative Stress

In a groundbreaking landmark study released in June 2019, researchers convincingly demonstrated that the stronger hydrogen bonds formed by deuterium incorporation into nucleosides and nucleotides of DNA molecules, can protect DNA molecules from strand breaks induced by reactive oxygen species like hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals [28]

Throughout the life cycle of cells, DNA is probably the most important bio-macromolecule.  DNA strand breaks that are not repaired properly can impair cellular homeostasis and genome stability, resulting in tumorigenesis.  DNA damage can be the result of ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation, chemical agents, and uncontrolled oxidative stress.  

Oxidized DNA bases and DNA breaks can be generated by reactive oxygen species derived from exogenous insults, or even from normal cellular metabolism. DNA strand breaks that are not repaired properly can have major effects on cellular metabolism, affecting autophagy, apoptosis, aging and cancer development.  It has been estimated that every cell could experience up to 105 spontaneous DNA lesions per day! [29] How do DNA strand breaks occur?

Hydrogen Peroxide Causes DNA Strand Breaks 

DNA oxidative lesions occur when an H atom is abstracted from C-H bonds in DNA molecules.  The vibration frequency of the chemical bond linking the two atoms is determined by their masses.  Bond cleavages are affected by different isotopes (in other words, different masses) of atoms with the same proton configurations.  That means stronger bonds are formed by heavier isotopes [30].  

When deuterium is exchanged for hydrogen in oxidation-sensitive positions in cellular components like nucleosides and amino acids in DNA, deuterium is able to protect against oxidative attacks without compromising the chemical identity of the compounds [28]. 

Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide probably represent the most damaging stressors that can generate widespread DNA damage. DNA strand breaks caused by extracellular superoxide were found to be less readily repaired [31]. Hydrogen peroxide has been demonstrated to cause BOTH single and double-strand breaks in thyroid cell DNA molecules.  Similar to superoxide, DNA strand breaks induced by hydrogen peroxide were repaired at a much slower rate than those caused by irradiation [32]. 

Deuterium Prevents DNA Strand Breaks

Piero Sestili et al. used Jurkat cells with normal or deuterium-enriched DNA and exposed these cells to H2O2 at a concentration of 50 μM for 30 minutes.  Cells with enriched levels of deuterium showed a significant reduction in the level of DNA strand breaks [28]. The highest potency of protection was observed in deuterated deoxyguanosine.  This is not surprising, as the oxidation product of guanosine, oxo8 2dG, is a hallmark biomarker used to assess oxidative stress damage in cells. Of the four DNA bases, guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine, guanine has the lowest reduction potential,  and therefore is the most susceptible to oxidation [33]. Therefore, the higher susceptibility of the nucleoside is to oxidative stress, the higher the level of protection was observed. 

When the concentration of deuterated nucleosides was increased from 10 μM to 100 μM, the highest degree of DNA damage was observed.  The following chart shows the extent of DNA strand breaks expressed as Nuclear Diffusion Factor (NDF), under different concentrations of deuterated thymidine nucleosides in 50 μM of H2O2 [28].

Deuterated Thymidine Nucleosides in 50 μM Hydrogen Peroxide

[Source: Piero Sestili, Maurizio Brigotti, Cinzia Calcabrini, Eleonora Turrini, Valentina Arfilli,  Domenica Carnicelli, Marco Lucarini, Andrea Mazzanti, Andrea Milelli, Valeria Righi, and Carmela Fimognari  Deuterium Incorporation Protects Cells from Oxidative Damage Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity Volume 2019, Article ID 6528106]

Deuterium Protects Proteins from Oxidative Stress

High levels of protein carbonyl groups are often associated with diseases like Alzheimer’s, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, sepsis, chronic renal failure, and respiratory distress syndrome.  Protein carbonyls are formed when lysine, arginine, proline and threonine residues are exposed to reactive oxygen species. The oxidative modification of proteins from excess oxidative stress is irreversible, and often results in pathological conditions.   Protein carbonyls can therefore be an excellent biomarker for oxidative stress [34]

Amino acids like arginine, lysine and proline are extremely sensitive to oxidative damage. Carbonyl derivatives are produced when oxidative stress forms lesions in proteins by cleaving the backbones or altering the side chains [35].  But when amino acids like proline are enriched with deuterium on their side chains, the proteins are protected from oxidative damage. The chart below shows a dramatic reduction of protein carbonyls in amino acids exposed to hydrogen peroxide when proline is enriched with deuterium. 

Deuterated Proline Protein Carbonyl Levels in Culture with and without Hydrogen Peroxide

[Source: Piero Sestili, Maurizio Brigotti, Cinzia Calcabrini, Eleonora Turrini, Valentina Arfilli,  Domenica Carnicelli, Marco Lucarini, Andrea Mazzanti, Andrea Milelli, Valeria Righi, and Carmela Fimognari  Deuterium Incorporation Protects Cells from Oxidative Damage Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity Volume 2019, Article ID 6528106]


It is highly possible that Inuit and ancient humans increased deuterium levels in their bodies to counter high oxidative stress levels in their environments that were exacerbated by low antioxidant supply from natural sources such as plants.  
Modern humans face a subtle yet similar crisis in excess oxidative stress in the environment caused by electromagnetic radiation. What role does deuterium play in our modern 5G world?

Electromagnetic Radiation Causes DNA Damage & Strand Breaks

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been demonstrated to interact with a range of non-ionizing electromagnetic frequencies, from Extremely Low Frequencies (ELF) to Radio Frequencies (RF).  DNA’s capacity for electronic conduction and self symmetry renders it to be the perfect fractal antenna for EMR, allowing DNA to react with EMR in the environment. Most of these reactions ultimately cause biomolecular damages that result in diseases like cancer [36].

It is widely believed that electromagnetic radiation in the form of radio waves are non-ionizing, and do not carry enough photon energy to separate electrons from atoms, breaking chemical bonds resulting in biochemical reactions or DNA damage.  It has been shown however, that when high energy electrons start to lose energy, free electrons carrying energies as low as 0.1 eV can attach themselves to DNA and cause single strand breaks, a process that normally would have required energies as high as 4.0 eV [37]. 

Cells exposed to only 45 minutes of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (100 Hz, 5.6 mT) applied continuously or discontinuously, all produced genotoxic effects with high degree of DNA damage as compared to non-exposed cells [38].

DNA strand breaks were observed in brain cells of rats exposed to only 2 hours of pulsed and continuous wave 2450 MHz (2.45 GHz) radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.  2.45 GHz is the frequency most widely used in WIFI devices. Four hours after exposure, single- and double-strand DNA breaks in individual brain cells were detected. It is possible that the DNA damage could have been caused directly by radiofrequency electromagnetic energy.  Alternatively, impairment of DNA-damage repair mechanisms in brain cells might also have contributed to the damaging effects of EMR on brain cell DNA molecules [39].
If deuterium can prevent protein oxidation and formation of DNA strand breaks, could heavy water have an effect on tumorigenesis?

In 2017, Farthing et al. demonstrated in a well-conducted study that at a higher but physiologically relevant concentration, heavy water (deuterium oxide) significantly down-regulated mouse thymus tumor cell proliferation [40].  When levels of heavy water (D2O) is more than 20%, the authors observed a significant negative modulatory effect on tumor cell proliferation and viability [40].  

Heavy Water or DDW for Cancer treatment?

The 2017 study published by Farthing et al. revealed some critical insights into the mechanism of deuterium. There is a definite linear relationship between stable heavy water dosing and total isotopic enrichments into DNA.  At higher levels greater than 20%, deuterium incorporation could affect cell proliferation by causing instability. However, these isotopic enrichments are deemed to be reversible, unlike cancer treatments with known adverse side effects from irreversible binding to DNA molecules [40].

Deuterium depleted water has also been shown to modulate tumorigenesis.  An excellent study by Dzhimak et al. in 2015 demonstrated that most of the observed effects from exposure to deuterium depleted water are results from defensive stress response mechanisms activated by adaptation to lower deuterium levels in organisms over a long term [41]. 


The previous article “Mitochondria – Deuterium Depletion in a 5G World” discussed in great lengths how deuterium depletion augments the production of hydrogen peroxide in mitochondria as a result of increased electron transport chain oxidative phosphorylation activities [42]. 

All living organisms have evolved to use hydrogen peroxide as a signaling molecule. That is why increased H2O2 can elicit a complex array of defense mechanisms designed to protect the body.  However, when the level of H2O2 exceeds the capacity that can be handled by the body, REDOX imbalance results in uncontrolled oxidative stress. Studies demonstrated that a higher concentration of H2O2 will lead to adaptive stress responses through activation of major pathways such as Nrf2/Keap1 or NF-κB.  Extreme levels of H2O2 will inevitably cause oxidative stress resulting in damage to biomolecules including DNA and proteins [43].

Our modern high technology environment creates excess levels of oxidative stress that can result in protein and DNA damage. Addressing REDOX balance should be the highest priority for everyone who wish to improve their health.  The fact that deuterium is able to enhance the effectiveness of antioxidants is certainly a consideration that must not be underestimated.

The traditional Inuit diet provided ascorbic acid at a range of 11 mg to 118 mg, with an average at 30 mg.  Inuit also have exceedingly high deuterium concentrations in their bodies. it is not inconceivable that high deuterium enrichment augmented the effects of ascorbic acid to levels similar to intakes of 550 mg.  Deuterium could be the answer to the riddle of the famous Inuit Paradox.

Ascorbic acid is the ultimate birefringent quantum interface that can protect living organisms from the deleterious effects of manmade electromagnetic radiation [44].  Deuterium and ascorbic acid, Vitamin C, could also be the key to optimum health in a 5G world. 

Have you had your AA today?



[1] The cosmic origin of deuterium | Nature 

[2] Isotopic inferences of ancient biochemistries – Carbon, sulfur, hydrogen, and nitrogen

[3] SIMS analyses of the oldest known assemblage of microfossils document their taxon-correlated carbon isotope compositions | PNAS 

[4] Studying the Process of Formation of Precambrian Period Limestone Dolomite Fossils of Stromatolites in Hot Mineral Water Interacting with CaCO3 | Ignatov | Journal of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics

[5] The Inuit Paradox |

[6] Traditional and modern Greenlandic food – dietary composition, nutrients and contaminants. – PubMed – NCBI 

[7] The composition of the Eskimo food in north western Greenland. – PubMed – NCBI

[8] Vitamin C in the Diet of Inuit Hunters From Holman, Northwest Territories 

[9] Interpolating the isotopic composition of modern meteoric precipitation

[10] Dietary and physiological controls on the hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of hair from mid-20th century indigenous populations.

[11] Montana

[12] NUNAVIK (KUUJJUAQ) : latitude, longitude, map and postcode / zip code of Nunavik (Kuujjuaq) J0M in Canada

[13] Climate KwaZulu-Natal: Temperature, climate graph, Climate table for KwaZulu-Natal –

[14] Keimoes climate


[16] Singlet Oxygen Mediates the UVA-induced Generation of the Photoaging-associated Mitochondrial Common Deletion 



[19] Non-Singlet Oxygen Kinetic Solvent Isotope Effects in Aquatic Photochemistry | Environmental Science & Technology 

[20] Oxidative stress and metabolic disorders: Pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. – PubMed – NCBI

[21] “Free radical theory of aging: origin of life, evolution, and aging,”

[22] Nucleic Acids to Amino Acids: DNA Specifies Protein | Learn Science at Scitable

[23] Collagen 

[24] Quoygrew and the Viking Age Transitions Project | Department of Archaeology  

[25] Stable hydrogen isotopes of bone collagen in palaeodietary and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction Journal of Archaeological Science 35 (2008) 

[26] Hydrogen isotopes in individual amino acids reflect differentiated pools of hydrogen from food and water in Escherichia coli

[27] Proline content in hair Chemical Composition of Different Hair Types 

[28] Deuterium Incorporation Protects Cells from Oxidative Damage 

[29] DNA damage, aging, and cancer. – PubMed – NCBI 

[30] Literature Report —On the Interpretation of Deuterium Kinetic Isotope Effects in C-H Bond Functionalizations by Transition-Metal Complexes

[31] DNA strand breaks in human leukocytes induced by superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and tumor promoters are repaired slowly compared to breaks ind… – PubMed – NCBI

[32] Hydrogen peroxide induces DNA single- and double-strand breaks in thyroid cells and is therefore a potential mutagen for this organ. – PubMed – NCBI


[34] Advanced Oxidation Protein Products and Carbonylated Proteins as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Selected Atherosclerosis-Mediated Diseases

[35] Protein damage and degradation by oxygen radicals. I. general aspects. – PubMed – NCBI

[36] DNA is a fractal antenna in electromagnetic fields: International Journal of Radiation Biology: Vol 87, No 4 

[37] How Do Low-Energy (0.1−2 eV) Electrons Cause DNA-Strand Breaks? Accounts of Chemical Research, 39(10), 772–779 | 10.1021/ar0680769

[38] Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cause DNA strand breaks in normal cells

[39] Single-and double-strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation: International Journal of Radiation Biology: Vol 69, No 4 

[40] 2017 D2O slows tumor_Comparing DNA enrichment of proliferating cells following administration of different stable isotopes of heavy water | Scientific Reports

[41]  Content of Deuterium in Biological Fluids and Organs: Influence of Deuterium Depleted Water on D/H Gradient and the Process of Adaptation

[42] Mitochondria – Deuterium Depletion in a 5G World –

[43] Hydrogen peroxide as a central redox signaling molecule in physiological oxidative stress: Oxidative eustress

[44] Electromagnetic Radiation and Quantum Decoherence: Is Vitamin C the Ultimate Quantum Interface? | LinkedIn


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