We have the honor of hosting the great independent researcher Doris Loh on our blog. Expert in quantum biology. Speaker at the last paleomeeting of Rome!
News article for this post: https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/06/laser-detects-tumor-cells-bloodstream-potentially-improving-melanoma-screening-and?fbclid=IwAR0wi46lki4No2h4dubAL3JuUHBqFkU-lPI_1HgmW-gMhNsMbdnfv3l35rQ
By Doris Loh
An exciting new discovery that utilizes photoacoustic laser to detect and destroy melanoma cancer cells revealed some fascinating aspects of the pathology of this cancer.
One person dies of melanoma every hour in the United States and more than 1 million new melanoma cases are diagnosed each year, Melanoma is highly malignant and aggressive because it is able to metastasize at a very early disease stage. Most cancer deaths from metastases are the result of circulating tumor cells (CTC) spreading from the primary tumor to vital organs. Therefore, the early detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in patients with melanoma followed by immediate treatment is vital for reducing the risk of dangerous metastasis. Once melanoma has metastasized to distant organs, the average 5-year survival rate for melanoma is only 15 to 10%, whereas for patients with very early, nonmetastatic disease, 5-year survival rates are greater than 97%. 
The team of scientists at the University of Arkansas developed a high sensitivity Cytophone that combines high pulsed laser with focused ultrasound transducers that allows photoacoustic detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) at 1000 times increased sensitivities than standard detection methods, as it is able to detect one circulating tumor cell per Litre of blood! The way the device works is most ingenious as it targets melanin in CTCa of patients with melanoma. 
When the high pulsed laser at a wavelength of 1060 nm and energy up to 240 mJ is applied on the skin of patients, the high energy infrared photons generated heat in red blood cells, and if the circulating cells contain melanoma tumor cells, the melanin inside the cells will also absorb the heat from the photons and generate acoustic waves that are amplified by vapor nanobubbles generated around melanin nanoclusters. These acoustic waves are detected by the ultrasound transducer in the device and the resulting PA signals recorded. What was also interesting is that increasing the intensity of the laser pulses generated a non-linear increase in acoustic waves from the melanin nanoclusters, because of the increase in the laser-induced nanobubbles around the melanin that absorbed heat from the photons. The authors also observed that these nanobubbles led to the physical destruction of CTCs through a photomechanical mechanism. 
Why is melanin present in circulating tumor cells of melanoma?
Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the melanocyte. Through a process called melanogenesis, melanocytes produce melanin. Cutaneous malignant melanomas often exhibit pigmented regions that are darker than the surrounding skin, and pigmentation in melanoma has long been considered as a secondary aspect of the malignancy. Pigmentation is often used as a visible warning that the cells have increased aggressiveness for invasion and metastasis. 
Most people are not aware of the relationship between melanin and melanoma. Melanin are chromophores that inhibit the conversion of 7-DHC by competing for the absorption of UV-B photons during the production of Vitamin D3. An increase in melanin in human skin will increase the time reequired for exposure to UV radiation in the formation of pre-vitamin D3.  Melanin has the known capacity to absorb a wide spectrum of electromagnetic radiation and transduce these radiation into biologically useful energy in certain eukaryotic fungal species  In the human body, melanin’s role is a potent double-edged sword in that it can be either photoprotective or phototoxic, in the right context.
Melanin has been shown to exhibit a dose dependent antioxidant ability to scavenge free radicals, it also chelates metal cations, cellular toxins including chemotherapeutics, and consumes intracellular oxygen, thus creating hypoxia as a result.  Melanin responds specifically to UV radiation. Nature uses melanin to protect skin cells from UV damage. When melanin in ionized by UV photons, melanin can generate three melanin radicals per molecule of oxygen consumed 
The reason why melanoma is extremely difficult to treat is due in major part to the radioprotective effects of melanin. While melanin serves to protect normal melanocytes from ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and oxidative stress, it can also make melanoma cells resistant to different types of therapy including chemo- or radiotherapy. 
Why did nature create something that can help protect cancer cells? Did she make a mistake? No, nature seldom errs. Nature also provided organisms with Vitamin C, ascorbic acid. The relationship between ascorbic acid and melanin is the key to skin cancers like melanoma.
Melanin generates free radicals when it absorbs electromagnetic radiation like UV light. Do you know how other species deal with this phenomenon? They use ascorbic acid to regenerate the electrons lost by melanin when they are oxidized during ionization by UV photons.  Do humans have the same ability? You bet!!
Scientists always have known about the inverse relationship between skin pigmentation and the incidence of sun-induced cancer rates, but they didn’t understand why.
In 1987 scientists discovered thioredoxin reductase, a membrane-associated enzyme that can quench free radicals before they can penetrate the plasma membranes of keratinocytes and melanocytes. The researchers tested healthy human subjects with different skin types with varying levels of pigmentation. They found a tight correlation between thioredoxin reductase activity and the level of melanin pigmentation in the skin. The darkest type VI skin according to the Fitzpatrick classification had a five-fold increase in enzyme activity over type I skin. 
Seven years later, these researchers confirmed that thioredoxin reductase expression was indeed increased when melanin biosynthesis was induced by radiation in guinea pigs, leading to the conclusion that melanin and thioredoxin reductase could be the body’s response mechanism to oxidative stress. Even though the expression of thioredoxin reductase increased, the levels and activities of other endogenous antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase actually decreased 
Thioredoxin Reductase NEEDS Vitamin C!
Thioredoxin reductase are redox enzymes in the PMRS (Plasma Membrane Redox System) that rely on ascorbate and NAD(P)H to neutralize ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species). YES, that means without adequate ascorbic acid as REDOX Balancer, thioredoxin reductase will NOT be able to perform its function to control excess oxidative stress generated by melanin when they are ionized by UV or other EMR. In fact, the level of ascorbic acid in your skin dictates how much melanin is produced in your skin.
Vitamin C Controls Melanogenesis
Ascorbate controls the formation of melanin by inhibiting the oxidation of L-DOPA. The presence of ascorbate can also increase the amount of L-DOPA synthesized by tyrosine in the presence or absence of UV-B irradiation. However, the amount of L-DOPA synthesized in the dark in the presence of ascorbate after exposure to ultraviolet is markedly higher than non-exposure to ultraviolet.  What this means is that when you have adequate ascorbic acid in your skin, your skin will be synthesizing important catecholamines like dopamine and norepinephrine, instead of melanin.
Human keratinocytes have been demonstrated to synthesize catecholamines from L-tyrosine, and the human epidermis actually has the capacity for TOTAL catecholamine biosynthesis. Scientists have identified in keratinocytes, all the key enzymes for catecholamine synthesis including tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in the conversion of tyrosine into L-DOPA which is the important precursor to neurotransmitters like dopamine and norepinephrine. [12, 13] When L-DOPA is oxidized, melanin is formed.  And remember, Vitamin C, ascorbic acid, prevents the oxidation of L-DOPA. This is how Vit C lower your melanin content, yet Vitamin C is able to protect you from damaging UV rays from the sun, why?
A lot of my readers tell me that after they have been supplementing with Vitamin C, they do not experience sunburns anymore. This is because Vitamin C is birefringent , and it is able to depolarize light and render the incoming photons decoherent. You can think of ascorbate as the first interface where incoming photon signals are being decoded before secondary interfaces receive and act upon those quantum signals. How does quantum biology interpret the properties of ascorbate? So far, ascorbate has been associated with three quantum properties. It is able to absorb UV-B photons and suppress fluorescence (or fluorescence quenching) of radiation below roughly 310 nm. The absorption maximum of ascorbate is below 270 nm, with some studies showing a peak at 220 nm. Ascorbate is also able to lower excitation signals and transform short UV-B wavelengths between 280 nm to 320 nm into longer UV-A radiation in the 320 nm to 400 nm range. With fluorescence quenching ascorbate is able to substantially reduce emissions to the UV-A range of between 320 nm to 400 nm. These mechanisms effectively shift high-energy light waves into longer wavelengths emitting lower energies. 
Nature has been there all along, providing us with all the tools to utilize all the elements from our environment. We only need to heed her messages.
Have you had your AA today?